Italia Interesting points of Italian dialects
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Ladino The Ladin language is spoken in some valleys of Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli and the Belluno province and has much in common with the Western Romance languages. Ladin derives from the Latin vulgar mixed with Rhaetian (Etruscan) and Noric languages and later influenced by German and Italian. It is a very old language that survived thanks to the isolation of the Dolomite valleys. The following dialects belong to this group: Gardenese, Badioto-Marebbano, Fassano, Fodom, Ampezzano and North Agordino. Ladin Occitano The Occitan language in Italy is spoken in the Occitan valleys of Piedmont, located in the extreme western part of the region. It belongs to the group of Romance languages, therefore, coming from the Latin. In the period following the Roman period, it got influences from the French language. The ability to speak Occitan would help learning foreign languages faster thanks to its variety of sounds. These dialects belong to this group: alvarnese, Limosino, Vivaro-Alpine, Gascone, Linguadociano and Provençal. Occitan Francoprovenzale The Francoprovençal is a language spoken in Italy in Aosta Valley and in some valleys of Piedmont. It belongs to the Gallo-Romance group of languages along with the French and the Occitan. While the French language continued to evolve over the years, the Francoprovençal remained enclosed in its archaic and primitive form. It is a language that comes in numerous spoken versions and it exists only if considered in its varations. These dialects belong to this group: Valdostano, Arpitano and Savoiardo. Francoprovençal Sudtirolese The South Tyrolean is spoken in most of the province of Bolzano, a place where German language is taught in schools and is the language of official occasions. The South Tyrolean dialect is more widespread in the countryside rather than in the urban centers where the use of the German language prevails. The South Tyrolean dialect is very similar to the North Tyrolean dialect spoken in Italy but it has more Italian influences. These dialects belong to this group: Southern South Tyrolean and Northern South Tyrolean dialects. South Tyrolean Friulano The Friulian language is spoken in the provinces of Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia and part of the province of Venice. It originated from the latinization of the Karst language to which later elements of the Venetian, Slavic and Germanic languages (Longobards, Goths, Franks and Germans) were added. In 1999, the State of Italy recognized the Friulian linguistic minority and allowed the schools to teach their language. These dialects belong to this group: Goriziano, Udinese, Concordiese and Karst. Friulan Veneto The Venetian is spoken in almost all the Veneto region and in the southern part of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. It is a language originated from the Latin developed in a venetian substrate. In the inland it has Germanic influences while in the eastern part it has Slavic and Karst influences. During the Renaissance, it was used throughout Europe as a diplomatic language, but the fall of the “Serenissima” Republic of Venice (1797) put an end to its importance. Today it is spoken by 3,500,000 people. These dialects belong to this group: Trevigiano-Feltrino-Bellunese, Paduan-Vicentino-Polesano, Veronese, Triestino, Istrian and Dalmatian. Venetian Galloitalico The Gallo-Italian dialects are widespread in Northern Italy, specifically in Liguria, Lombardy, Emilia Romagna and in some areas of Piedmont, Trentino and Marche. They are composed of innumerable dialects that have in common the fact that they were originated from the Latin language on a Celtic and Germanic precedent with French and Tuscan influences. These dialects belong to this group: Piedmontese, Eastern Lombard (Bergamasco, Bresciano, Cremasco, Trentino) Western Lombard (Milanese, Comasco, Lecchese, Varesino, Lodigiano), Ligurian (Roiasco, Monegasco, Genoese, Lunigianese, Bonifacino), Emiliano (Ravennate , Riminese) and northern Marchigiano Gallo-Italic Toscano For many years, the Tuscan was not considered a dialect as a source of cultured Italian. During the unification of Italy, in fact, it was chosen as an official language to be used throughout the national territory. Unlike other dialects, the Tuscan, which is mainly spoken in the Tuscany region, has a certain degree of purity towards the Italian Latin language. These dialects belong to this group: Florentine, Sienese, Western Tuscan (Pisan-Livornese-Elbano, Pistoiese, Lucchese), Aretino, Grossetano-Amiatino. Tuscan Mediano The Median dialects are spoken in the Marche, Umbria and Lazio regions. The varieties of dialects present in this area are numerous and all come from the same ethnic, economic and socio-cultural causes. An exception is the dialect spoken in the city of Rome, whose grammar differs from the Italian, deriving from the Tuscan dialect. It spread throughout the city during the Renaissance thanks to the connections between the Tuscan intellectuals and the papal court. They belong to this group of dialects: Romanesco, Viterbese, Umbrio-Marchigiano, Sabino, Ciociaro. Median Meridionale It is a group of dialects spoken in Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Basilicata, part of Puglia and Calabria. It is a linguistic variety with Latin-vulgar bases, Illyrian and Greek influences then modified by the Swabian, Norman, Spanish, French and Arabic languages. None of these dialects has ever been declared an official language because even before the unification of Italy, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies already used Italian as an administrative and literary language. These dialects belong to this group: southern Marchigiano, Abruzzese (Pescarese, Teatino, Teramano, Aquilano), Molisano, Campano (southern Laziale, Neapolitan, Irpino, Cilentano), Lucano, Apulian (Dauno-Appenninico, Garganico, Barese) and Calabrian. Southern Italian Corso The Corsican language is spoken in Corsica and Northern Sardinia. It is very close to Italian, so much so that those who understand one, understand the other. It is in fact closely related to the Tuscan language and in a minor way with the dialects of Liguria, due to contacts between the island and the old Maritime Republics. The Corsican has always been handed down orally, except for the recent era, a period in which it was decided to make it a written language in order to avoid its extinction. These dialects belong to this group: Maddalenino, Gallurese and Sassarese Corsican Sardo The Sardinian language is spoken in south-central Sardinia and is recognized by the Italian Republic as an historical linguistic minority. It is so close to Latin that it has been declared the most conservative of all the Romance languages. However, the influences left by the languages spoken before the Roman conquest, such as the Phoenician and the Nuraghic, are evident. With 1,700,000 speakers, it’s the largest linguistic minority recognized in Italy. These dialects belong to this group: Lagudorese, Nuorese, Campidanese Sardinian Meridionale Estremo It is a group of dialects spoken in Calabria, Sicily, Salento and southern Cilento. This area roughly traces the Byzantine territory in Italy at the beginning of the ninth century. Later on, Arab, Norman and Swabian influences gave life to what is the group of extreme southern dialects. It is necessary to remember how the Sicilian language greatly influenced the Tuscan school, and thanks to its charm, so much was used in the court of Federick of Swabia as an alternative to the Latin. These dialects belong to this group: Salentino (northern, central and southern), Calabrian (central and southern), western Sicilian (Palermitano, Trapanese), central metaphonetics (Ennese, Caltanissettese), south-east metaphonetics (Ragusano), eastern (Siracusano, Catanese) , Messinese, Aeolian, Pantesco, Calabrian (Vibonese, Catanzarese, Cosentino, Reggino, Lametino). Extreme Southern Italian
Occitan South Tyrolean Gallo-Italic Venetian Friulan Ladin Median Southern Italian Extreme Southern Italian Francoprovençal Tuscan Sardinian Corsican Back to the
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Identification Of The Immigrant
Compatriots And Their Dialects
Losing Dialects
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